Parshat Vayishlach: Wrestling with Angels




In this week’s parsha, Yaakov is confronted by an angel. Rashi cites his opinion that this is a ministering angel for Esav, helping in his attempt to defeat Yaakov. Rashbam, however, views this story through a different lens. He suggests that the angel isn’t trying to hurt Yaakov; rather, this angel is trying to guide and direct him.


Although the story may seem as though it describes Yaakov preparing for battle against Esav, according to this interpretation, what he was really doing was planning an escape. The narrative describes Yaakov sending many presents to Esav, which seems like Yaakov is attempting to pacify him. But it may have been an attempt to guide Esav towards him, by placing these presents so that Esav will follow the trail for more. Through this diversion, Yaakov was able to lead Esav and his 400 men astray while he utilized a different path to escape.


However, as soon as we think Yaakov has been successful in making his grand escape, he is met by an angel who tries to distract and delay him in an attempt to buy enough time for Esav to arrive. As Yaakov is about to win, the angel dislocates his hip, in a final effort to obstruct his getaway. This fight continued until the sun rose; by that time, it was too late for Yaakov to leave, because Esav was already nearby.


This take on the parsha shows us the importance of facing an unpleasant situation head-on. Yaakov was eager to flee, hoping to avoid his brother altogether. But the angel stopped him, leaving him with no other choice but to meet Esav face to face. It was now Yaakov’s responsibility to own up to his prior actions (disguising himself as Esav and disappointing him in his hopes for Yitzchak’s blessing).


This story shows us an important life lesson. As humans, we often shy away from taking responsibility for our actions. It is incredibly easy to fall into the trap of running away from one’s problems. Sometimes we choose the easiest path to take in order to avoid unpleasantness, but is this really the best path? Despite the fact that it may be superficially easier, in reality, it inhibits character development and obstructs growth. The angels we may face in life do not appear to defeat us or cause us to succumb; rather, to enable us to overcome our weaknesses, causing us to flourish.

 





Shabbat Shalom, 

 

Tova Asher, Grade 12

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School

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Parshat Vayetze: Leaving Home


In this week’s parsha, Parshat Vayetze, Yaakov is on his way to his uncle’s house to keep away from his brother, Esav, who wants to kill him. On his way, he stops to rest for the night. While Yaakov sleeps, he has a dream. He dreams of a group of angels going up a ladder to heaven, while another group of angels is coming down the ladder.

 

When Yaakov woke up, he realized that he was in a place of Hashem. He was in a very holy place, and he didn’t even realize it! Many people have asked how this is possible. How could Yacov not know he was in a place of Hashem? It doesn’t make any sense; after all, he lived at such a high level of kedusha (holiness).


I think the reason Yaakov did not realize that this location was holy was because he was leaving Israel. He did not have the same connection with Hashem at this time because he was losing it, or had already lost it, by leaving Israel.  With his departure from Israel, Yacov severed the special connection he had with Hashem.


From Yaakov, we learn that people who are in Israel have a special connection with Hashem, just by being in the Holy Land. This explains why the Jews were given the land of Israel in the War of Independence, and the Six Day War, and all the other battles they’ve fought to protect it. It serves as proof that the Jewish presence in Israel is necessary. Hashem helps Jews more when they are there because it is a holier place than any other location in the world, and it is where we are meant to be. If Jews continue to control the land, Hashem will make sure that we keep it, because he will protect HIS people in HIS land.




 

Shabbat Shalom, 

 

Deborah Broyde, Grade 10

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School

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Parshat Toldot: Deception




This week's D'var Torah is sponsored by Natalie (Birnbaum), Sigi, and Felix Fisch, and Philip Keenan, wishing a Happy 2nd Birthday to nephew and cousin, Eitan Birnbaum!!


This week’s parsha is Parashat Toldot. The parsha talks about how, after continuous praying, Rivka is blessed with two boys, Yaakov and Esav. As everybody knows, Yaakov is said to be the tzadik, the righteous one, and Esav is supposedly the “bad guy.” (There is a big game of favorites played in this parsha.) Rivka loved Yaakov, and Yitzchak loved Esav. Yaakov was always the talmid chacham, studious and on a higher spiritual level than Esav, and Yitzchak clearly knew this--yet he still loved Esav more.


The parsha states, “ויאהב יצחק את עשו כי ציד בפיו,” which means “Yitzchak loved Esav, for game was in his mouth.” What does that mean, that “game was in his mouth”? Rashi explains that Esav was very creative with his words. He enjoyed tricking Yitzchak with witty and confusing questions. If this was talking about any normal person being tricked, it would make sense; but this is talking about Yitzchak, one of the smartest people alive.


The mefarashim (commentaries) then ask: Would it even make sense to say that, out of love for Esav, Yitzchak was so ignorant and unintelligent that questions like these would override his common sense and make him think of Esav as some talmid chacham? Would it make sense for him to love his deceptive son rather than his honest one?


Yitzchak knew that Yaakov was eternally righteous (not slick, like Esav.) He knew that Yaakov would spend his days learning rather than working to support himself. Yitzchak thought that Esav would eventually become the successful one, the merchant, since Yaakov would be learning all day. So Yitzchak planned to give Esav the blessing of success, so he could support both himself and his brother. 


”רב דגן ולא הרבה דגן" The literal meaning is “an abundance of grain, not a lot of grain.” These both seem pretty similar. What is the difference? The difference is that Yitzchak doesn’t intend to bless Esav with a lot of grain, a sufficient amount for himself; he intends to bless him with an abundance of grain, meaning that the farmers of his town will have so much grain that Esav could buy it for cheap and sell it for a lot more, making him very wealthy. With all of this wealth, Esav could support both himself and his brother while Yaakov learned. As I said before, Yitzchak was not ignorant and unintelligent; he knew that with this blessing, it would be guaranteed that one of his sons could benefit the other. There would be no need for him to worry about either of them.


Fortunately, Rivka knew that Esav was a mean, selfish person. She knew that if he was blessed with an abundance of wealth, not only would he keep it to himself, but he would take any opportunity to tax Yaakov and drain him of any form of wealth he had. With this knowledge, it might have made sense to go to Yitzchak and tell him, but she didn’t. Rivka wanted to prove to Yitzchak that Yaakov had the potential to be just as witty as Esav.


We see later on, when Esav comes to Yitzchak for the blessing, that it was already “taken” by Yaakov. Esav immediately starts to cry to Yitzchak, telling him of how he was tricked by Yaakov. Not only was he tricked once, but twice, with the sale of his bechorah (birthright) and then the blessings. At first, Yitzchak was shocked that he had been fooled, and upset that his ideal image for the success of his sons would not go as planned. But after processing the information, he realized that the greatest cheater had been cheated. With that, Yitzchak was overjoyed that it was Yaakov who received this abundance of wealth. He was happy that Yaakov would not only be a successful scholar, but would make sure that everybody who needs a little help would get it.


We learn from this that as a Jewish nation, we have the capability to take care of others and to make peace among all those who desire it. Every morning, Hashem gives us the chance to use all the blessings we have been granted to positively influence the world. We can relate this to the daily battles in Israel that are happening right at this moment. Although Hamas is awful to us, the Israeli soldiers and even the Israeli citizens protect all Arabs and Palestinians who are in need of help. Just like Yaakov was granted with the blessing to help those in need, so are we. We should help everybody who needs it, whether it seems fit or not, because ultimately, that is what the Jewish people are meant to do.






 

Shabbat Shalom, 

 

Nicole Dori, Grade 9

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School

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Parshat Chayei Sarah: The Legacy of the Righteous



In this week’s parsha, Chayei Sarah, Sarah dies from the shock of her son being sacrificed--she doesn’t know Yitzchak will live in the end. Sarah understood life’s fragility. 

 

But a question may be floating through your mind: Why is this parsha called “Chayei Sarah, the LIFE of Sarah,” if she dies?

 

I’ll give you an answer. During her life, Sarah merited three miracles. The first was that her Shabbat candles were always lit; the second was that her challah dough always remained fresh; and the third was the cloud of glory resting above her tent. But after her death, these miracles ceased.

 


Later in the parsha, Yitzchak meets Rivkah, and they get married. The three miracles that had existed for Sarah returned to the tent for Rivka, demonstrating the theme of “dor l’dor, generation to generation.” This comes to teach us that even if someone dies, his or her legacy can still continue to live on in other people. Maybe our bodies die, but our souls don’t.


This can also be related to the events currently happening in Israel. The fact that people are dying in Israel is terrible; but it doesn’t mean we should give up hope, it doesn’t mean it’s the end. Their legacies live on.


Every person lost to us is a tragedy. But the fact that there are young men and women with the courage to defend the Land serving in Tzahal (IDF), who courageously sacrifice their lives for the state of Israel, shows that we should have hope for the future--just as Sarah died, but her legacy continued on through Rivkah. 


Sarah’s legacy still lives on today; we look on her as one of the mothers of the Jewish people. So, too, we look up to the brave people defending and protecting our land.





 

Shabbat Shalom, 

 

Sophie Harris, Grade 9

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School

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Parshat Vayeira: Prayer...With Feeling

Parshat Vayeira: Prayer...with Feeling

 


In this week's parsha, Parshat Vayera, Avraham is told that the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are to be destroyed because everyone there is immensely wicked. In an attempt to save lives and protect the city from destruction, Avraham bargains with Hashem: "Perhaps there are fifty righteous men in the midst of the city; will You even destroy and not forgive the place for the sake of the fifty righteous men who are in its midst?" Being the merciful kind of G-d that Hashem is, He tells Avraham that if fifty righteous people did exist, He would spare the cities--but sadly, that is not the case. The numbers and arguments continue to dwindle until Avraham pleads to save the cities for the sake of merely one righteous man! Why the whole debate? Just save them or don't save them; why go back and forth with negotiations about numbers and lots of begging? 

 


When people daven, they must feel passionate about what they are praying for. Obviously, saving righteous men is Avraham's priority. Avraham has a soft spot for those that believe similarly to him. By beginning with the goal of saving large numbers of people that he really cares about, Avraham was able to rev himself up for a big triumph. He got excited about protecting many righteous people and, therefore, spent more time negotiating for the preservation of the city. The prep time of fifty people, forty people, thirty people allowed Avraham to become committed to the idea of saving Sodom and Gomorrah before reaching the more likely numbers of righteous men that were to be found in the cities. Going back and forth gave him time to mentally prepare for the tefillot that mattered more.


Before one davens--before one can sit and be passionate and really care about getting results with one's prayer--one needs to get into it. Davening isn't something that can just be done. We can't just sit down and expect to feel anything, or that Hashem will hand us what we've asked for on a silver platter. Just like Avraham, we need to find that thing to connect to, to sit down before prayer to meditate on it, to think about why it is important to us, why this is what we want. This way, when we actually get to the prayer, the passion will be there when it matters most--when the numbers get low, and there are only seconds left to get an answer.





 

Shabbat Shalom, 

 

Zoie Wittenberg, Grade 10

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School

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Divrei Torah on Parshat Lech Lecha from the AJA Upper School Shabbaton

Michelle Khandadash on Parshat Lech Lecha:


I’m going to start with a synopsis of this week’s Torah portion, Lech Lecha.


Hashem commands Avraham to leave his home and travel to Eretz Yisrael. The Almighty then gives Avraham an eternal message to the Jewish people and to the nations of the world: "I will bless those who bless you, and he who curses you, I will curse." Because of a famine, Avraham was forced to travel to Egypt. Avraham asked Sarah to disguise herself as his sister, for she was very beautiful and local men would kill Avraham to marry her.


Pharaoh evicts Avraham from Egypt after attempting to take Sarah for his wife. They settle in Hebron, and his nephew Lot settles in Sodom. Avraham rescues Lot, who was taken captive in the Battle of the Four Kings against the Five Kings.


Entering into a covenant with Hashem, Avraham is told that his descendants will be enslaved for 400 years, and that his descendants will be given the land "from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates." (I do not think that this part of the story made it into the Koran...)


Sarah, childless, gives her handmaiden, Hagar, to Avraham for a wife, so that he can have children. Ishmael is born. The covenant of brit mila is made! Then Hashem breaks the exciting news that Sarah, at the fabulous age of 100, will give birth to Yitzchak. To finish it all off, Avraham then circumcises all the males of his household.


Well, that’s action-packed. So many things happen! But one thing in particular makes me enjoy this parsha. You see, everyone in the Torah is human, like me and like you, and one of the great things about human beings is that we get stressed! We all know that with college applications, endless hours of homework, cause fair (save the elephants!), we have a lot on our plates--and to put the beautiful, red cherry on top, there are life’s inevitable ups and downs. With all this in mind, why is it that when Hashem told Avraham to “go for yourself from your land...to the land that I will show you,” Avraham doesn't get stressed out?


Hashem is asking Avraham to leave the home that is so familiar, the home that he knows inside and out, to a land that he can’t even find on a map! Hashem just says, “to the land that I will show you.” Avraham has to pack everything up and just travel! Wouldn’t you want to know where you’re going? When you’re going to get there? Let’s face it, moving is downright stressful for a human, but Avraham is not fazed. Why?


I will tell you why. Because of Lech Lecha. It says it right there, in the first verse! Lech Lecha -- go for yourself. Hashem could have just ended it at Lech, just go--but no, He decided to add the Lecha, for yourself.


Avraham traveled to embark on a journey where he will find himself. Now his travel has a meaning, a purpose, an end goal. This is what eased the great mind of Avraham. When you have a clear vision of what you want your end goal to be, the travel oddly becomes easier!


This brings up another interesting question: Avraham Avinu is, well, Avraham Avinu! What is it about himself that he needs to find?


As I previously said, he was human—and there is always something in all of us that we can grow from, there is always something that we can improve on.


When Hashem called on Avraham to find himself, He chose a specific destination for him: Israel. Hashem implied that this is the best place to find who you really are. It’s a maturity process, so to speak, and this process of setting forth on a soul search is a key to the door and everyone should go through it.


I know what you’re thinking. Yeah, right, who has the time? But let me open your eyes to something. The Hebrew word for “life” is chaim, and it always seems to appear in plural form. This is because life is a never-ending process of self-discovery. The time is now, take advantage of it! It’s common to hear, Come on, this only happens once in a lifetime! Well, hello! Every day happens once in a lifetime! This moment, right now, you are never going to have it again! It’s the only chance you’re really going to get. So look to the person to the right of you, and look to the person to the left of you, and appreciate them! Appreciate what you have. Love the time you are blessed to have. It is said that Hashem tells each one of us “Lech Lecha” -- go for yourself. Avraham heard the call; hopefully, we will too.


Next year in Jerusalem!


********************


Talya Gordon on Parshat Lech Lecha 


“I need Shoshi, Maayan, and Ezra to please leave the room,” I shouted. Confusion filled the room as everyone wondered why I was requesting such a thing. I waited for a moment, letting the uneasiness sink in. Then I began. 


So you all probably think I’m crazy right now, but what I just demonstrated to you is what Hashem told Avraham in this week’s Torah portion, Parshat Lech Lecha. While it may have seemed crazy that I just asked Shoshi, Maayan, and Ezra to leave the room, how much crazier does it seem that Hashem asked Avraham to leave his home and the land that he had lived in for his entire life? 


Just imagine this: You wake up one morning, and you are going about your daily activities. For Avraham, that was probably doing acts of kindness; but still, it was just a typical day for him. Then suddenly, God appears to him and says: לֶךְ-לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ, אֶל-הָאָרֶץ, אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ. 


Hashem wanted Avraham to leave at His command, and Avraham listened right away. Avraham obeyed because of Hashem’s promise to make him a great nation. But this basic concept, the foundation of our entire religion, has bothered me. After all, if Hashem came to me and asked me to move and start an entirely new life, would I listen? Sure, I’m no Avraham, but still...how did he have enough faith? 


What I find most peculiar is that Avraham didn’t even know where he was going. He was supposed to just go on a journey, and when Hashem told him to stop, he would. 


I think that this comes to teach us that while in some areas of life, it is beneficial to have an ending point, a specific goal, we are never supposed to have an ending goal in our spiritual growth. Each and every one of us always has room to grow in our spirituality, no matter who we are. For this reason, Hashem demonstrates to us that—without an end goal in mind—Avraham is willing to grow spiritually without even knowing how he will develop or how far he will travel. 


Avraham encounters many obstacles; so, too, we will encounter many obstacles in our spiritual journeys through life as well. It is simply inevitable. As soon as Avraham and Sarai leave their hometown, they encounter a king who wants to sleep with Sarai and kill Avraham. They are forced to lie and say that Avraham is Sarai’s brother in order to keep him alive. This comes to teach us that—even though Avraham is listening to Hashem and trying to grow spiritually—he will encounter barriers. It is his job, and our job, to try and maneuver around these barriers and grow nonetheless. 


This theme is again present when the Jews receive the Torah, when they all proclaimed in unison, “נעשה ונשמה--we will do, and then we will hear.” The order of the words in this phrase comes to teach us that we, as B’nei Yisrael, must be willing to grow through action, for only then can we ensure that we are unlimited. Only then will we be able to grow as much as we possibly can.


 


 

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Parshat Lech Lecha: To the Land I Will Show You


What would you do if you were in class, and your teacher asked you to skip around the classroom reciting the Declaration of Independence? 

 

Odd, but do-able, right? 

 

What if a principal asked you to represent your school by making a televised speech on religion? 

 

Scary, but still do-able. 

 

Now, let's imagine that someone you hardly know--but really like--asked you to pick up all your belongings, leave your family, friends, home, and lifestyle, and move to a whole different country. Would you do it? 

 

Ummmmm, I don't think so. That kind of decision is life-altering. 

 

It sounds crazy, but our forefather, Avraham, believed so passionately in Hashem that he was willing to take that risk and venture out to the land of Israel. From this parsha, we are able to appreciate Avraham's courage and faith. 

 

In fact, we should strive to achieve similar behavior in our own everyday mitzvot from Hashem. If Avraham was able to put down everything that he knew to be his life and put it on hold in order to follow Hashem, we should be able to learn something from this, too. Avraham teaches us the importance of following what is most important to you. 

 

In Avraham's life, this meant devoting his life to God. He was the first monotheist! Therefore, he would have seemed like a hypocrite had he not listened to God's word while he was telling others of its importance. Avraham wanted to follow through with his beliefs and show others that it is important to believe in God, even when we don't always understand His motives.



 

Shabbat Shalom, 

 

Mia Azani, Grade 12

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School

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Parshat Noach: Whose Roots? by Rabbi Reuven Travis


I cannot help but wonder each year when we reach Parashat Noach why the Jewish people trace their roots to Avraham and not to Noach. Few individuals in the Tanakh receive higher praise than does Noach in the opening verse of the parasha.

 

" אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ נֹחַ: 

These are the generations of Noach; Noach was a righteous man, he was perfect in his generations; Noach walked with God.

 

Think about it. When "all flesh had corrupted its way on the earth," to the point that Hashem decrees that "the end of all flesh has come before Me, for the earth has become full of robbery because of them," He does not opt to begin creation anew. Rather, Hashem saves Noach so that he and his descendants can repopulate the earth. And yet we call Avraham our father and the founder of our faith. 

 

Why is this so? 

 

Many are quick to point to Rashi's commentary on the language of the praise offered Noach, namely, that "he was perfect in his generation." Basing himself on the Talmud in Sanhedrin 108a, Rashi writes as follows: 

 

"Some of our Sages interpret it [the word בְּדֹרֹתָיו] favorably: How much more so if he had lived in a generation of righteous people, he would have been even more righteous. Others interpret it derogatorily: In comparison with his generation he was righteous, but if he had been in Avraham's generation, he would not have been considered of any importance." 

 

I have no doubt that every AJA student at some point in his or her Chumash studies has learned this Rashi and has discussed and debated its implications. Nonetheless, I believe there is a more fundamental reason why we consider Avraham to be our progenitor and not Noach. 

 

Hashem appears to Noach and informs him of the terrible fate awaiting not just humanity but all living creatures that walk the earth and fill its skies. He tells him to build an ark and gives him detailed instructions concerning its dimensions. Hashem further instructions Noach which animals to bring aboard the ark and advises him to fill its holds with ample food. Noach silently listens and in the end does all that God commands him. 



 

Compare Noach's silence and lack of any visible reaction to Avraham's encounter with Hashem when Hashem appears to inform him of His plans to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. Even before considering Avraham's response, it is worth noting why Hashem felt compelled (if we can say such a thing) to share His plans with Avraham: "I have known him because he commands his sons and his household after him, that they should keep the way of the Lord to perform righteousness and justice, in order that the Lord bring upon Avraham that which He spoke concerning him" (Bereishit 19:19). When God tells Avraham of His plans, Avraham's first reaction is to challenge God: "Will You even destroy the righteous with the wicked?" (Bereishit 19:23). Avraham is relentless. What if there are 50 righteous individuals? What if there are 45, 40, and so on? Avraham's language becomes increasingly impassioned. "Will the Judge of the entire earth not perform justice?" (Bereishit 19:25).



 

Ultimately, Hashem sees the strength of Avraham's arguments and logic, and cuts off the discussion when Avraham asks what God will do if there are 10 righteous individuals, for Hashem understands where the discussion is heading. Avraham will demand that He spare the cities if there be but one righteous individual there. 

 

And herein lies the reason we are the heirs of Avraham, not Noach. Noach was a great man, one deemed worthy of saving by God Himself. Yet Noach was inwardly focused. He walked with God, as the verse tells us, but seemed to be unconcerned with his fellow humans. Avraham, however, was willing to argue with Hashem to try and save even one righteous individual. Avraham's worldview is encapsulated in his defining character trait: chesed, that is, unrelenting kindness and concern for others. This is the trait the people God would ultimately choose to be "a light unto the nations" (Isaiah 49:6) need to fulfill their mission. The righteousness of a Noach may be enough to save humanity, but only the chesed of an Avraham can bring God into the world. 

 

May the lessons of this parasha inspire us to instill Avraham's legacy in our students and in our children. 

 

 

Shabbat Shalom, 

 

Rabbi Reuven Travis, Judaic Studies Faculty 

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School


 

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Simchat Torah: Touching God's Heart, by Rabbi Ari Karp

What has the power to save us even when all seems lost? What remains intact no matter what we experience and where we travel? No matter how far or how widely we have wandered?

 

It's one thing and one thing only: Love.

 

We are God's beloved, and He is ours. But sometimes we don't feel the love. Every Jew owns and breathes the Torah. But like breathing, sometimes we forget that we do it.

 

The holiday of Simchat Torah serves as a reminder of this love, and thus, we dance like we have never danced before.

 

The Zohar's explanation on the verse in Shir HaShirim, Song of Songs, captures the sentiment. We ask God, "Place me like a seal upon Your heart." A seal leaves an enduring impression long after it has been removed. Even if the seal itself is gone from the heart, however far away it is, the impression of the love that was there will always remain.

 

On Simchat Torah, we read the end and the beginning of the Torah. The last and first letters of the Torah are lamed and bet, spelling lev, "heart."

 

So tell me, when the sealing of the Torah is placed upon God's heart, how could we not dance?

 

As the famous phrase goes... "Simcha poretz geder, joy can break limitations." When we are joyous on Simchat Torah, anything is possible, even outwitting heaven itself!

 

So dance, and clutch that Torah as tightly as you can; it is your most powerful lifesaver.




 


Chag Sameach,


 


Rabbi Ari Karp,


Judaic Studies Faculty, 


Atlanta Jewish Academy, Greenfield Middle School




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Shemini Atzeret: Stay, by Mrs. Sonia Hoffman

When we celebrate Yamim Tovim, it's important to understand what we're doing so that our celebration and our mindset are focused and meaningful. That being said, Shemini Atzeret has always been a bit hard to understand. It is a day that comes right after Sukkot, but isn't officially part of Sukkot, so what should we be thinking and feeling during our Shemini Atzeret celebrations?

 

In Vayikra 23:36, where the Torah brings down the celebration of Sukkot, it says:

 

"[For] a seven day period, you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord. On the eighth day, it shall be a holy occasion for you, and you shall bring a fire offering to the Lord. It is a [day of] detention. You shall not perform any work of labor."

 

This is a reference to Shemini Atzeret, the eighth day of the seven day celebration of Sukkot. The verse tells us that the eighth day is a "day of detention". We all know detention isn't something we generally celebrate; there must be a deeper meaning to the word.

 

Rashi comments on this verse and relays a really profound message. Rashi writes, "It is a [day of] detention: [i.e., God says to Israel,] "I have detained you [to remain] with Me." Rashi continues with a short parable. He says, imagine there's a king, and the king invites his children to a huge celebration for a specified number of days. The children come and they all have a great time, but then the specified number of days is up and the children have to go back to their lives. But the king wants to spend more time with his children, so he calls out to them and says "Please, stay just one more day!"

 

This is Shemini Atzeret. God invited us into our Sukkot for seven days, and we enter in gladly and we celebrate and have a great time. But then the seven days of Sukkot come to an end; and as we're about to go back to our lives, God calls to us and says, "Please! Stay for one more day!"  That one day is Shemini Atzeret. It's a time where we focus on the relationship we have with God and His desire to be close to us.

 

This year on Shemini Atzeret, as we're celebrating, let's think about the special relationship we have with God; and hopefully, our love and appreciation for the relationship will grow as well.




 


Chag Sameach,


 


Sonia Hoffman,


Judaic Studies Faculty, 


Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School




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Sukkot: The Holiday of Jewish Unity

Sukkot is almost upon us, and one of the biggest Mitzvot of Sukkot is to shake the Arba'ah Minim, the four species.  In Vayikra 23:40, it says:  "ולקחתם לכם ביום הראשון פרי עץ הדר כפת תמרים וענף עץ עבות וערבי נחל, you will take on the first day a fruit from a citrus tree (etrog), the branch from a date palm (lulav), twigs of a plaited tree (hadassim), and brook willows (aravot).”


We shake the four species every day of Sukkot except on Shabbat. The four species are a key part of celebrating Sukkot, but what do they stand for?


Imagine the four species as body parts. The etrog represents the heart, the hadas (myrtle) has leaves shaped like an eye, the lulav (date palm) represents the spine, the aravah (willow) represents the lips.


In order for the mitzvah of shaking lulav and etrog to count, you have to have all four species together. So if you put all the body parts together, you get a whole person. A person is not complete if he doesn’t have a spine to hold him upright, or he can’t be complete without a heart, the center of feelings and emotions.


One Jewish person makes up a little part of the entire Jewish population. Each Jewish person is different. The Midrash says that each type of person is represented by one of the four species. The etrog has a good smell and a good taste, so it represents somebody who does good deeds and has wisdom.


The hadas has a good smell, but can’t be eaten, so it represents somebody who does good deeds, but doesn’t have wisdom. The lulav can be eaten, but doesn’t really have a smell. This symbolizes a person who has wisdom, but doesn’t do good deeds. The aravah doesn’t have a smell and isn’t edible either. That represents someone who doesn’t do good deeds and doesn’t have wisdom.


All these types of people together make up all of the Jewish people. Without the people with wisdom, there would be nobody to teach the people lacking wisdom, and without the people who lack wisdom and good deeds, there would be nobody to teach good deeds and wisdom to.


Every person needs other people to serve a purpose in the world and everything needs another thing to serve its purpose in the world. On Sukkot, the Arba'ah Minim all have different meanings and different purposes, but when they all come together, they all act as one whole unit.


Everyone is needed in this school to make it complete. If one person is missing, then that takes away a part of the experience for everyone, because that person wasn’t there to say what he would have had to say, or do what he could have done to change the experience.


On Sukkot, if you have the four species, but you have no people to shake them, the lulav and etrog have no purpose. Similarly, the experience of eating in a Sukkah with the walls holding us together as a community teaches us that Sukkot is the holiday of Jewish unity.


Sukkot is also a holiday of joy. Celebrating Jewish unity is a very important mitzvah. So we hope you have a happy Sukkot and a Chag Sameach,



Adina B. & Zach M.


 

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Sukkot: From Sacrifice to Prayer, by Rabbi Reuven Travis

Sukkot: From Sacrifice to Prayer

 

The core ritual of our observance of the holiday of Sukkot, that is, our dwelling in sukkot, commemorates our wanderings through the wilderness for 40 years under the miraculous care of Hashem. Many of the miracles we witnessed during that time were connected to the Mishkan (Tabernacle), and the very fact that God's presence then visibly dwelt among the Jewish people.


 

With the permanent settlement of the land of Israel, Mishkan became Temple; but through our sins, we lost that miraculous edifice not once, but twice. That loss forced the Jewish people to adapt and seek a new means to connect, as a people, with Hashem. That new ritual was, of course, prayer.

 

How did this new rite emerge and take shape?

 

Based on the Talmud in Megillah 17a, the Rambam (Maimonides) explains that the exile that occurred upon the destruction of the First Temple resulted in the Jewish people losing their common language. Thus, "to recite the praises of the Holy One, blessed be He, in the holy language [i.e., Hebrew]" became an impossible task. For this reason, states the Rambam, upon the return of exiles from Bavel to Israel, Ezra and the Beit Din established 18 mandatory benedictions, a group of blessings that ultimately came to be known as the Amidah.

 

The composition and sources of the Amidah are critical in understanding the evolution in Judaism from sacrifice-based to prayer-oriented ritual. However, the more immediately germane point raised by the Rambam involves the number of times these blessings were to be recited each day.

 

The Rambam writes that the men of the Great Assembly decreed the number of times daily prayer (in this sense, the Amidah) is to be recited must correspond to the number of daily sacrifices. The count is therefore as follows: one prays the Amidah two times a day to correspond to the two daily Oleh offerings, morning and afternoon, brought in the Temple. An additional Musaf prayer is also to be recited on those days when an additional Musaf offering was sacrificed in the Temple (i.e., on ShabbatYom Tov and Rosh Chodesh). Finally, a third prayer was to be recited daily, in the evening, to correspond to the time in which the limbs of the afternoon offerings were left to burn on the altar, as the verse states: "It is the burnt-offering [that stays] on the flame, on the Altar, all night until the morning" (Vayikra 6:2).

 

Given the destruction of the Temple and the breaking of bond with God that resulted, it is understandable why the Sages wanted to--and did--link prayer to sacrifice. Why they felt it so important to link prayer to the Avot, or Patriarchs (as they did the talmudic tractate of Brachot) is less obvious, but may be explained by a powerful insight offered by the Ramban (Nachmanides) onParshat Lech Lecha.

 

There, the verse states very simply that "Avram passed into the land as far as the site of Shechem, until the Plain of Moreh" (Bereishit 12:6). The Ramban uses this verse as a springboard to explain an extraordinarily important principal (ענין גדול), namely, that all the events which the Torah documents as happening to the Avot are but harbingers of the events that will befall their descendants in later generations. This is a well-known teaching of our Sages. However, the Ramban understands this dictum in an interesting and unique way. 

 

For the Ramban, the actions of the Avot are not mere signs of future events; they are actual precursors of those events. In other words, Avram's initial entry into Canaan at Shechem and his continuing until the Plain of Moreh were not symbolic of how Joshua's future conquest of the land would unfold, but were instead necessary pre-conditions for that conquest. In this vein, it can be argued that prayer had to be linked to sacrifice to bolster the people's connection with HaShem in the face of His concealing His divine presence, but that its establishment by the Avot was a mandatory prerequisite for it to succeed. 

 

During this special time of year, as we sit in our sukkot and contemplate our past and plan for our future, let us all, as parents and as teachers, remember that our children and our students learn from our actions--just as we, as a people, learn from the actions of the Avot. And may it be that the many special and beautiful prayers we offer during the holiday of Sukkot be an inspiration to us all to bring about the time when the miracles of the Temple are not merely part of our collective history, but a reality of our present times. 


 


Chag Sameach,


 


Rabbi Reuven Travis,


Judaic Studies Faculty, Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School




 

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Yom Kippur: Fulfilling the Mission, by Rabbi Jake Czuper

The Talmud in Yoma 85b says, "How fortunate are you, Israel! Before whom are you purified and who purifies you? Your father in heaven....Just as a mikvah purifies the impure, so, too, the Holy One, blessed be He, purifies Israel."



Our tradition views Yom Kippur as a great gift; the culmination of the process of amending our past and looking forward towards a successful, bright future. 

 

During the previous month of Elul and the lead up towards Yom Kippur, the prayers have focused on our past.  During Selichot, we have called out to G-d, confessed our mistakes, regretted our misdeeds, and asked for mercy and to be written in the Book of Life.  The beginning of the Yom Kippur service starts out in a similar vein, but the tone of the day changes with the final prayer in Sh'mone Esrei. 

 

Every Amidah of Yom Kippur ends with ... "My God, before I was formed I was unworthy, and now that I have been formed, it is as if I had not been formed." Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Kook (the first Chief Rabbi of the State of Israel) interpreted this sentence as follows: "Until I was born, it was not the time for me; my specific mission in life was for this period and no other. And now that I have come into this historic epoch, it is as if I was never born, for I have squandered the abilities that were given to me in order to fulfill this mission." 

 

We end off each Amidah prayer on Yom Kippur by reminding ourselves that Hashem has put us here in this world and this point in history for "our specific mission," and it is incumbent upon ourselves to reflect on our own unique strengths, talents, and untapped abilities, so that we can use the upcoming year towards success in fulfilling our mission.  The culmination of the Teshuva process not only atones for our past, but guides us towards a bright future. 

 

Perhaps this is reason why the Talmud states in Ta'anit 26b, "There were no happier days for the Jews than the Fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur."

 


May this New Year 5775 be filled with blessing, joy, and peace, and may the entire AJA community have a g'mar chatimah tova,

 

Rabbi Jake Czuper

Judaic Studies Faculty, Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School

 

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Rosh Hashanah: Repentance and Its Significance for Our Generation, by Rabbi Pinchos Hecht

The Aseret Yemai Teshuvah, beginning with Rosh Hashanah, once again usher in an opportunity for each of us to set the passing year right and to properly prepare and plan for a better year to come. The method we use for this is teshuvah, translated as "repentance." Truth be told, teshuvah is much more than the repentance; the translation for teshuvah is "return." The issue on which we each need to focus is, what exactly are we returning to?



In Rav Kook's powerful book of essays on teshuvah, The Lights of Penitence, Rav Kook broadens the definition of teshuvah from its traditional and most important one of repentance, thereby making it even more relevant and accessible to each and every one of us, no matter our age, position, or religious status.



In the Rav's writings, he describes how true penitence begins in one's will, and slowly moves toward implementation in the very fabric of one's life. In the Rav's thinking, man's primary focus in teshuvah is the quest for self-perfection. This lifelong desire to perfect oneself naturally overflows into a deep hunger to also perfect society and the world. Teshuvah, in the Rav's view, is a universal and eternal force, always at work within us. It is part and parcel of our very life force. 


The Rav divides penitence into two types: sudden penitence and gradual penitence. Sudden penitence is the result of an unexpected flash felt in the soul. At once, the person senses all the evil and ugliness of sin and is converted into a new being, experiencing a total transformation for the better. Such sudden penitence is the domain of the small group who merit it; graced by Hashem, they are models of what teshuvah could be for the rest of us.

In gradual penitence, there is no sudden flash of illumination catapulting one from the depths of evil to the loftiest good. Rather, the individual feels that he must mend his way of life, his very will and patterns of thought. Heeding this impulse, the individual gradually acquires the ways of righteousness, corrects his morals, improves his actions, and increasingly conditions himself to become a better person until he reaches a higher level of purity and perfection.


It is here that the repenting or ever-"returning" individual recognizes his growth and change. He experiences this gradual but increasing expression of penitence in small increments of illumination from the All-Good, the Divine, the light of He Who abides in eternity. In these flashes, the penitent experiences oneness with the universal soul and its spiritual essence to the extent that the human soul is prepared for and can absorb it. He becomes able to feel deeply and to understand that all of existence is so good and so noble, and is not the good and the nobility in ourselves but an expression of our relatedness to the All? How, then, can we allow ourselves to be severed from the All into a strange and distant fragment? He feels himself returned to the light and the life force that pulses through his very being.


As a result of this perception, which in itself is divinely inspired, the individual comes to true penitence out of love, teshuvah mei'ahavah, connecting him to his true self, reconnecting him to society and to the universe, and uniting him with the Almighty and all of His creation.


To the Rav, teshuvah is about us healing ourselves and thereby, our world. To return from isolation, loneliness, humiliation, fragmentation, separateness, and illness in mind and body to our perfection, to our true source of life and health, to the very light of the divine from which we emanate. To once again be returned to wholeness, to unite and be one with our purpose and creator. Such teshuvah, or return, can only be accomplished gradually. By learning to feel the light and the love that pulses throughout the universe, calling and beckoning us to come home and be whole again. Such teshuvah is one and the same as the lifelong quest for self-perfection and growth that we all feel and so strive for. Ohr Hateshuvah, or the light of teshuvah, restores us to our G-d-created and natural perfection. We are once again facing into the light of the divine, not turned away from it. Goodness flows to and through us. We are forgiven even as we forgive all who have sinned or hurt us. The very days and experience of aseret yemei teshuvah help heal and return us to health. As we are healed, forgiven and forgive, the whole of creation is healed and forgiven through us.


May we all merit experiencing this larger light, and the holiness and unity it embodies this year and always. 


Shana Tova, 


Rabbi Pinchos Hecht, Head of School, Atlanta Jewish Academy


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Nitzavim-Vayelech: From the Heart

There are three kinds of mitzvot that one can do, as it says in the parsha, "Keeping the Torah is very close to you, in your mouth, and in your heart, to do it" (Devarim 30:14). Rabbeinu Bachya says that these three types are mitzvot that we do with our mouths, mitzvot that we do with our hearts, and mitzvot that we do with actions. 

 

Rabbeinu Bachya comments that the mitzvot that we do with our hearts are the most important and significant. Things in your heart have the greatest effect on you, because they're inside of you. The mitzvot that you do physically are outside of the body, and they leave you, but mitzvot that you do with your heart stay with you. With this idea, we can understand the statement of Chazal that says that thinking about an avairah--a sin--is worse than actually doing the avairah (B. Yoma 29A). The Rambam says that the reason for this is because the power of thought is a "great elevation of a human, with the power of intellect and from the intellectual prophecies; and when a person sins with his thoughts, he is sinning with the choices of his Middot [character traits]" (Rambam, Guide for the Perplexed, Chapter 2). 


When you are using something more personal, it is more serious than doing something with your hands. Your intellect and free choice is the most human and precious thing that you own. This is why later in the parsha, it describes the process of Hashem bringing everyone back to do teshuva, repentance, as  "circumcising our hearts" (30:6), because the heart is the most basic part of serving God.  Hence, it is with the service of the heart that one truly becomes a servant of Hashem, and, consequently, that's the first and main step of doing teshuva.  I find this message so appropriate for the month of Elul, leading up to Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, as it is the prime time to be thinking about teshuva. 


Shabbat Shalom, 

 

Aharon Davidson, Grade 11 

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School
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Ki Tavo: Chosen?

 



In this week's parsha, Ki Tavo--as in many parshiot--several laws are mentioned that deal with what Bnei Yisrael must do when they enter Eretz Yisrael. Among these are the laws of bringing the first ripened fruits to show gratitude to Hashem, and giving 1/10 to the Levi'im or the poor (also known as a tithe). But the verse that I would like to focus on is Moshe's re-emphasis of the idea that B'nei Yisrael are Hashem's "chosen people." The passuk in the Torah says the following: 

 

18. And the Lord has selected you this day to be His treasured people, as he spoke to you, and so that you shall observe all His commandments.

 

19. And to make you supreme, above all the nations that He made, [so that you will have] praise, a [distinguished] name and glory; and so that you will be a holy people to the Lord, your God, as He spoke.

 

We, B'nei Yisrael, are Hashem's chosen people. But what does it even mean to be known as Hashem's chosen people? Doesn't that imply that we think we're better than everyone else, the root of bigotry? Here in America, where equality is a key concept to the foundation of our country, people are very uncomfortable with the idea of a "chosen nation." 

 

The main problem, however, is that we aren't proud to be the chosen nation because we are just as uncomfortable with the idea as non-Jewish people are. Whenever a non-Jew asks us what it means to be the chosen people, we shy away from the question, saying that everyone is equal, and we aren't really chosen or better than anyone else. While this is nice in the sense that we don't want to seem like we are better than anyone else, we also are completely avoiding the question that still looms unanswered. Why are we the chosen people, and what does that mean? 

 

Being the chosen people is a responsibility. When God chose us in the famous midrash, he offered the Torah to other nations; however, this does not mean that the other nations could have been Jews. What this midrash demonstrates is that no one could have accepted the Torah but the Jews, because the Torah is an inherent part of Judaism. The holidays--for example, Pesach--would not have been pertinent to other nations, because they were never enslaved in Egypt! So, the Jewish people really had an extra responsibility--to prove they wanted their history to belong to them. 

 

Any person with a special talent will demonstrate it for the world to see, and the world won't hate him or her for it. For example, according to Rabbi Manis Friedman, nobody felt that it was unfair that Einstein was so smart or Beethoven so talented. Rabbi Friedman emphasizes the idea that when you have a talent, or are chosen, you should be proud of it, not act mysteriously and try to hide it. The reason that we were chosen is that Hashem needed an embodiment in this world, a group of people who could bring His spirituality into the mundanity of the everyday world. Hashem chose the Jewish people not because he wanted us to feel arrogant, but because he wanted to encourage our humility. 

 

By being closer to Hashem, one realizes just how powerful Hashem is--thus making us smaller in comparison. It is our sense of relative insignificance that is inflated, not our egos. After leaving Egypt, our pride had already been humbled; we had served as subordinates for many years. We were therefore somewhat prepared for the task before us, even though being a spiritual leader in this world takes a lot of strength. But with this strength, we can live up to the title Hashem gave us.


 

Shabbat Shalom,

Talya Gordon, Grade 12, Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School
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Ki Tavo: A Knowing Heart

 


In this week's parsha, Ki Tavo, right before he dies, Moshe calls the B'nei Yisrael to him and says, Vayikra Moshe el kol Yisrael vayomer aleihem: Atem rei'item et kol asher asa Hashem l'eineichem beretz mitzrayim, l'pharoah ul'chol ahvodov ul'chol artzo, "And Moses called all of Israel, and said to them, "You have seen all that the Lord did before your very eyes in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, to all his servants, and to all his land" (29:1). 

 

Moshe's intention here is to help the B'nei Yisrael recognize all of the good that Hashem has done for them in the past years: The powerful plagues that He brought over Egypt, the splitting of the sea, and all of the other wondrous occurrences that Hashem had shown his people over the 40 years in the desert. But a moment later in 29:3, Moshe says, V'lo natan Hashem lachem, lev lada'at ...ad hayom hazeh, "And Hashem has not given you a heart to know...until this day." 

 

"Hashem hasn't given you a heart to know"? After all the time that the B'nei Yisrael spent in the desert, and after everything Hashem did for them, they still didn't have a lev lada'at, a knowing heart, to realize the greatness of Hashem? 

 

He supplied them with clothes. All of the people in the midbardesert, had one set of clothing; the garments never got dirty or worn out, and they grew with the people over their forty-year tenure. Hashem also gave them food. He said, Lechem lo le'echol, "you will not eat bread," meaning that every morning, manna will fall from the sky and that food will be the tastiest thing they have ever eaten. The same goes for drink; the Jewish people had the Be'er Miriam, the well of Miriam, follow them throughout their travels. After all of this, how could Moshe say that the Jewish people received a lev lada'at, a knowing heart, only at the end of the forty years, right before he died? How is it possible that the Jewish people didn't have a heart to know Hashem when he was doing all of the miracles for them from Egypt through the desert? Couldn't they recognize Him? 

 

The answer, says Rashi, is a very sentimental one. On the day that Moshe died, he wrote a sefer Torah and gave it to the tribe of Levi. Later, the rest of the shevatim came complaining to Moshe, asking him why they did not get a Torah written for them, too. They told him that they were afraid that one day, after Moshe was gone, the Levi'im would keep the Torah for themselves. They kept reiterating the fact that they, too, wanted a Torah. It was because of this incident that Moshe rested in happiness, because he felt that the Jews had really captured the crux of lev lada'at

 

So what is this "knowing heart"? It is the WILL, the DESIRE, for the merit of Torah! Surrounded by Hashem and the Torah 24/7 in the desert, perhaps they took the miracles that surrounded them for granted. The mere fact that the B'nei Yisrael were terrified of losing the Torah shows their recognition of the importance of the Torah and of Hashem, which brought out their lev lada'at. The B'nei Yisrael finally recognized that Torah is the essence of life!

 

At some point in everyone's school life, thoughts have crossed our minds like,Why should I learn this piece of gemara, or why should I daven right now? But after we graduate and our religious observance is left completely up to ourselves, we should realize the importance of Torah and--to a point--be scared of what life would be like without it. The Jews complained A LOT in the desert; but they became upset at the mere thought of the Torah not being with them after Moshe died! That shows the true acknowledgment of, appreciation of, and indebtedness to Torah, and the quintessence of our religion.

 


Shabbat Shalom,

 

Sam Kalnitz, Grade 12

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School
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Ki Teitzei: Paying It Forward, by Rabbi Pinchos Hecht


"Paying it forward" is a phrase that describes a Jewish idea, recently popularized by a beautifully produced movie. The idea is that, by bringing goodness into the world through any act of g'milut chasadim, kindness to others, we create a chain reaction of blessings that will, over time, return blessings to the contributors to the chain many times over.



This week's parsha reinforces this idea. The Torah assures us that, when we do the right thing, we will experience a blessing that allows us to continue doing the right thing, and enjoy ever-increasing blessings.



Our rabbis described this phenomenon as mitzvah goreret mitzvah, one good deed inspires another, and so on, and so on...



Returning lost objects to their rightful owners, a beautiful mitzvah to fulfill, will result in a blessing from Hashem that leads to owning a new garment. Ensuring that the garment is not made of shatnez, or a mixture of wool and linen, will lead to the mitzvah of tzitzit when these ritual fringes are placed on the four corners of the new garment, which will, in turn, lead to the blessing of building a new home. Putting proper fences on the roofs of that home to ensure that visitors are safe will lead to the blessing of planting a new vineyard, from which we will be able to feed and support the needy. And the blessings continue, mitzvah goreret mitzvah!



The opposite is also true: Averah goreret averah, one sin leads to another. Doing the wrong thing or missing the opportunity to do the right thing can start a negative downward spiral.



Paying it forward is Hashem's way of motivating us to do the right thing. Of course, on the ladder of possible motivation for goodness, the higher rungs involve elements of selflessness--doing the right thing because it is the right thing. At the same time, those higher rungs are attainable only after we safely climb the lower rungs of the ladder; and they are sustainable only as long as all of those rungs are tight and secure. The proper motivation for our children to encourage them to do good should not be limited to selfless altruism. Paying it forward, or mitzvah goreret mitzvah, is completely legitimate, and very much the message of this parsha.

 

Shabbat Shalom,

 

Rabbi Pinchos Hecht

Head of School, Atlanta Jewish Academy
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Ki Teitzei: Mandatory Goodness, by Dr. Paul Oberman

In this week's parsha, Ki Teitzei, we are instructed not to take interest from fellow Jews. We are allowed to take interest from non-Jews, but "you may not cause your brother to take interest, so that Hashem, your G-d, will bless you..." [23:21]. Ramban points out that it's unusual for a blessing to result from refraining from a negative commandment; we do not earn blessings for not killing or not stealing, we simply avoid punishment. The implication seems to be that charging interest per se is not wrong, but just as we must give tzedakah to fellow Jews, so too must we give loans at no cost. Then this mandatory kindness is rewarded, in recognition of the positive side of this negative commandment.


In the Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School, we mandate a certain number of hours of service to the community; yet we also take great pride in the fact that our students contribute those hours. As in this week's parsha, this is a seeming contradiction. Still, we are proud of our students for following through on this service learning for a number of reasons, among them that they come up with the opportunities themselves, that they take joy in performing these hours, and that they often exceed the mandated number of hours by a large margin. By and large our "commandment" is either redundant or simply a quick kick-start to an impressive career of serving the community. Even though it is part of the graduation requirement, our significant investment in service is a significant point of pride for our students and our school.


May we all take great joy in following through on the "mandatory opportunities" presented to us by Hashem.


 


Shabbat Shalom, 

Dr. Paul Oberman, Associate Head of School, 

Atlanta Jewish Academy Upper School

 

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Shoftim: The Pursuit of Justice

Parshat Shoftim is replete with reminders to us to ensure that justice is enjoyed by all.  We are commanded, "Tzedek, tzedek tirdof; righteousness, righteousness shall you pursue." The Midrash shares a reason behind the repetition of tzedek, and teaches that it is incumbent upon us all to do all we can do to pursue justice, even when it works against our own best interests. 

 

It may be for this very reason that our sages, may their memory be a blessing to us, have such profound respect for even the radically divergent opinions of their rabbinic colleagues.  The lesson of "Alu ve'elu divrei Elokim chayim, both the opinion of the minority as well as the majority are the words of the Living G-d," confirmed that all informed opinions are divinely inspired.  The goal behind this attitude is the creation, development, and growth of an open minded, trained, disciplined, and dedicated group of scholars, judges, rabbis, teachers, and students to lead and direct the people toward a purposeful and fulfilling life of service to both the Divine and mankind. 


The minority opinion is always recorded alongside the majority opinion.  Yet one has to ask: Once the decision is made, why record the abandoned opinion? 


The rabbis, in their great wisdom, knew that by preserving the minority positions issued by trained and accepted scholars, they left open the possibility that a later court could decide an issue in accordance with the minority.  An example of this follows. 


Rav Moshe Isserles, known as the Rema, served as the Chief Rav of Krakow, Poland, during the sixteenth century.  He was considered one of the outstanding experts and judges in Jewish law, and his religious-legal decisions are accepted as authoritative for Ashkenazic Jewry to this very day.  Rav Moshe Isserles opens his responsum (no. 125) with the words, "I hear behind me a great rushing noise," the roar of an angry community who questioned him--and were even thinking of deposing him from his rabbinical position--because he allowed a wedding to take place on Friday night! 


This was viewed as problematic because the Mishnah (Beitzah 5, 2:20a) forbids conducting a wedding ceremony on the Sabbath. The reasoning behind this decision is explained in the subsequent discussion of the Gemara as, "lest you come to write out the Ketuba, marriage document," without which the couple cannot live together as man and wife.  Nevertheless, Rav Moshe Isserles performed such a ceremony. 


In a rare introduction to his responsum, the great rabbi explained that the bride's parents had promised a considerable dowry to the groom's parents, but that the bride's father had died shortly before the wedding. The bride's lack of dowry meant that the wedding had been called off at the last moment.  At 10:30 on Friday night, an aunt of the groom had convinced her nephew to go ahead with the marriage despite his parents' objections. They arrived at the rabbi's home at that very late hour, and since the rabbi understood that the groom could easily change his mind should there be a delay, the Rema immediately performed the ceremony. Only an immediate wedding would save the bride from the shame of the broken engagement and poverty that would most assuredly have doomed her to spinsterhood. 


Rav Moshe Isserles goes on, in his responsum, to cite the minority view of Rabbeinu Tam--that the prohibition against a Shabbat wedding only applied to a couple who already had children from a prior marriage--noting the fact that even Rabbeinu Tam himself would only permit a Shabbat marriage "under extreme duress" (bedohak gadol). The Rema felt that this minority opinion was sufficient to rely on in the case of the couple who stood before him; thus, the importance of preserving every minority opinion!  


In a similar vein, why was the School of Hillel recorded as the source of all final halachot, and not the School of Shammai? Were not the words of Shammai also called the words of the Living G-d?  


The scholars of Bet Hillel were accepted as the decisors "because they were sweet-tempered, modest, and accept rebuke; moreover, when asked the law, they first presented the opposing opinion of the Academy of Shammai, and then presented their own view" (BT Rosh Hashanah 14). A system of laws taught and developed by such great rabbis is truly a testament to the words of our holy and eternal Torah, "Tzedek, tzedek tirdof."  


Shabbat Shalom,


Rabbi Pinchos Hecht


Head of School, Atlanta Jewish Academy


 

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